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The principle of trade migration appears to me to have moved the gods around even more than the gleaning of gods from conquests of war. A merchant of Dilmun (on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf near present day Bahrain) might go north to Nineveh to trade and end up carrying his merchandise south to Oman and on to East Africa or Yemen by dhow-- the Arab sailing ship. (See map on page 127)
The whole area in this discussion was ruled by the Sultan of Oman in about 800 AD, in fact, the Sultan moved to the Zinj, East Africa, for many years because he preferred the climate there better than that of Oman. Zinj, East Africans, had a temporary empire of sorts at the head of the Persian Gulf circa 865 AD.
It is one of these dhows that the Apostle Paul sailed in when he took a ship "from Adramyttium" (Acts 27:2) which is the Greek word for the Hadhramaut in South Arabia. In order for that Arab ship to be in the Mediterranean, it would have been rolled on logs through a wadi (desert valley) between the Red sea and the Nile river, then floated down the Nile to the Mediterranean!
To see a Middle Eastern camel, CLICK HERE
In fact, some historians believe the Arabs were the first to circumnavigate Africa. The Arab dhow is almost as romantic a symbol as the camel to the wandering Arab, but Hollywood missed that fact, so most Westerners don't even know that the dhow is one of the most sea worthy ships ever used. Arab merchants have always been fearless nomadic merchants of the seas, but, being superstitious and often at great risk, they had a weakness for collecting gods whom they imagined would protect them. Thus, the gods got a free ride, not the least of them, LIL or Allah.
There are several long bridges which link Mecca with the ancient past. Taken alone, they are enough to prove that Allah came from Nimrod's pagan Sumer, but we make the detailed hajj, or pilgrimage, to prove beyond any doubt the point of this chapter.
But, let us look at one long bridge as reported by Hitti. He shows that the Arabs of Saba in South Arabia inscribed HLH in some of their inscriptions for the high god. With the vowels supplied, this becomes Hallah, and later, Allah. Hitti reports that this inscription was also found in the Lihyan inscriptions in North Arabia, and he says that its origin was Assyria. (FOOTNOTE 72: 65 / 100-101 / 21) This would certainly mean that Allah and Ba'al of ancient Assyria and Phoenicia carried the same divine heritage from ENLIL / IL and survived into recent Arabia, indeed to the Indian ocean and Zanzibar.
Hitti's observation that HLH / Hallah, or Allah, was the high god of Saba blows the "Allah was a moon god" notion out of the water. Wadd was the moon god of Saba, as we will see later in this chapter. He was a serpent and phallic god most likely, and he was a flunky god who never got anywhere, especially not to Mecca. So Robert Morey's claims missed Hitti's discoveries, by ignorance or by design, for Morey never learned that Allah made it to Saba and prevailed. If the Sabaeans made the error of confusing the solar heritage of Allah with lunar heritage of Wadd, that was a local conundrum, not the norm all over the Middle East. The allaged Sabaean lunarizing of Allah was certainly not the norm in Mecca where the Lady God Allat was the moon goddess and wife of Allah. Saying Allah is the moon god because the Sabaeans thought he was would be like saying that Emperor Heile Salassia is god because the Rastafarians of Jamaica think he is.
To see an Arab dhow, CLICK HERE
Moving on south to Jawf, which is south of Phoenicia and near the Lihyan Arabs, in about 500 to 700 BC, we find the name Allah and his consort, Allat, beseeched for mercy in travel. This was carved into the rocks along the trade routes. Also, Zayd'il and Hamilat (note the IL root) are god and goddess innovations which change the prefixed name but retain the masculine and feminine forms of deity. (FOOTNOTE 73: 172 / 79-78 / 243-245) These two migration points, on the great trade route, lie midway between Phoenicia and North Arabia and complete the Phoenician picture. So, we now have Allah all the way around the corner and into what is today the nation of Jordan. That takes us to our next destination.
We have already entered North Arabia in discussing the area of Jawf. Also included in North Arabia are such locations as Dumah, Dedan, Taima, Petra, Safa, and even Palmyra on the north since the Arabs dominated it for most of its history. The language groups which figure in the inscription evidence are from the period circa 1000-500 BC and are, Taymanite, Jawfian, Nabataean, Dedanite, Lihyanite, Najdi, Hijazi, and Tabuki. These are all Semitic languages from which modern Arabic evolved. In discussing the inscriptions of this area and time, I will not give all of the details as to the dialect or location, but you may have my detailed data for the asking (and for some cost for time and materials).
The Nabataeans are perhaps the most famous of the Northern Arabs. They carry the name of Ishmael's eldest son, Bible, Genesis 25:13, And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam... Nebajoth will also figure in the coming 1000 year kingdom of Messiah as Arabs come up to worship at the altar of Messiah Christ. Bible, Isaiah 60:7, All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on mine altar, and I will glorify the house of my glory.
I feel sorry for some alleged scholars who think there is no physical Messianic kingdom coming. They must have quite a time with the above text since it has not yet happened. God is a liar if Messiah Christ never sets up His literal kingdom on earth, and let us have none of this rubbish about some faint concealed event in past history. God performs His mighty acts in plain view, especially in the case of Arabs bringing animals to sacrifice on the altar of Jehovah in Jerusalem.
There is a recent PhD (piled higher and deeper) who claims that the Arabs of today are not the descendants of Ishmael. This is cheap academic racism, and it is especially ugly when it comes from a man who claims to honor the God of the Bible! Where will God get Ishmaelites in his coming kingdom (Isaiah 60)? Create more? Get used to it sir-- God has His hand on the Arab people just as He does with the Jews. Isaac (Israel) He preserves for the covenant, and Ishmael (the Arabs) will be restored to fellowship with his half brother, Isaac, in fulfillment of the promise God made to His friend Abraham.
The Bible, Genesis 17:18-20, And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee! And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.
It amazes me when a so-called "scholar" can dismiss a prophetic truth, like the one above, by making a statement that boldly disagrees with our sovereign God's designs. What is "scholarship" anyway? Is one immune from submitting to God if he has earned a PhD? Must God and all of history say, "By your leave, sir?" I think not.
I feel much better now that I thumped the above "scholar," so let us return to North Arabia. The Nabataeans had open-air sanctuaries to worship Dushara who, you will recall, was the god of Phoenicia. Dushara migrated to North Arabia as well as to Crete and Greece. The temples to him had niches carved out of solid stone, furnished with lamps, into which the worshipper entered to pray. The parallel in more recent times would be the Ethiopian Coptic churches at Lallibela which are also carved from solid rock.
In Nabataea the goddess consorts of Dushara were Manat and Allat, both of whom turn up later in the Koran, Sura 53 (the "Satanic Verses"), which was briefly added by Mohammed. Thus, we see the LIL root in Allat (Al-ILAT) was present in that area. To reinforce other engravings in North Arabia, in nearby Dhu-Ghabat many gods and goddess were engraved in the stones, including Allah, Allat, Manat, and Al-Uzza.
Allat cannot be cast aside, for her name was used alone and in combination with other local deities to form local hybrids. The Nabataeans did this casually, and the following quote proves this:
There is some evidence that the Arabians of Herodotus are to be associated with the Qedarites. An Aramaic inscription discovered on a silver bowl at Tell el-Maskuta in Egypt and dated at the end of the fifth century BC refers to Qaynu son of Gashmu, king of Qedar, as making an offering to the deity Han-'Ilat. (William J. Dumbrell, 'The Tell el'Maskhuta Bowls and the Kingdom of Qedar in the Persian Period, SASOR 203, 1971, 33-44, and Winnett-Reed, ARNA, 116.) Han stands as the determinative prefix of 'Ilat, which is the feminine form of "il making Han'Illat in Arbaic 'Al,'Ilahat, which is contracted into 'Allat' meaning 'the goddess.' (Joseph T Milik, Origine des Nabateens, in Studies in the History and Archeology of Jordan, vol 1 ec. Adnan Hadidi, (Amman, Jordan, Department of Antiquities 1982, 261-265).
In passing, I want to tell you about a stone cylinder in Dedan that was twelve feet high and seven feet deep. Arab legend says it was the milking pail of the Arab prophet Salih. His miraculous camel could fill the stone pail when milked, but the sorrow came when the camel took a drink-- she drained all the springs and wells in the area. Life is never dull in the Arabian desert! Indeed, there is a moral to the story, but I shall leave that to you.
Copper coins, rubbed blue stone, slag from refineries, and alabaster fragments show that the northern Arabs were not backward. (FOOTNOTE 74: 172 / 39, 50, 71-72 / 234-238) These also show that they traded far and wide to get the raw materials of commerce of their day. Again, this suggests how Allah, the LIL namesake, arrived in North Arabia by caravan from all over the Middle East.
A unique twist in North Arabian Nabataean culture was the place of the queens who ruled them. (By contrast, Arab men today have completely subjected their women, especially in Islam.) Many of these ancient queens were named after Ishtar, and Atarsamain (Star of Satan), a Babylonian goddess who enjoyed the high ground with a temple exclusively dedicated to her.
Esarhaddon, circa 670 BC, tried to curry favor with North Arabia by having a red-gold star, decorated with precious stones, sent to their temple. This was the symbol of Al-Uzza who was the Arab equal of Venus. (FOOTNOTE 75: See footnote 74, author's p. 72 / 237) Esarhaddon was theologically clever, for Al-Uzza, being the star (Venus was a star to these people), would compliment Atarsamain nicely. Ecumenism was not invented by Vatican II, dear reader. I point this out to show that, though Allah was very common in the names of men in the area, he was losing the high ground to the ladies.
This explains why we find him a neglected generic god in the Kaaba by 600 AD, and it is why Mohammed chose him as the god of Islam. Allah was a general blessing, but nobody felt very strongly about him. It is interesting that this is just how the Muslim feels about Allah today-- he is mighty, all-knowing, but not very personal. In fact, Islam is much more sentimental and sensitive over Mohammed or some recent mystic than with Allah. This was already the case by 500 BC in Northern Arabia.
Now, come with me to look at the rocks. It is in these inscriptions in stone near many of the oases that we find the name of Allah and Allat, the LIL heritage of the god and goddess of Sumer. Remember also that we are looking at inscriptions derived from the ancient god Enlil. But what is astounding is that in north Arabia, they are 3000 years removed from the origin of Enlil, god of Sumer.
Also, the following inscriptions are only 700 years away from the appearing of Mohammed in Mecca, which is about 300 miles south of our present position. As we look for Allah's name in the rocks of North Arabia, he is nearing the end of his Hajj! I intend to show you that he certainly did come this way, and I remind you that Elohim, the God of the Bible, never migrated outside of Israel after Abraham moved there from Haran. Only Allah, and his goddess consort Allat, migrated to Mecca from pagan Sumer.
In looking at the inscriptions in North Arabia, we must keep in mind that they were written over a period of about 1000 years, so the most recent inscriptions date as late as 50 AD. The earliest inscriptions date from about 700 BC. You must understand that these inscriptions were carved in stone, so the old ones did not waste away with time, and the later ones were added and added until some of the stones outside of these oases were totally covered with prayers to the gods.
Only the consonants will be given in the actual inscription since Semitic languages do not write the vowels. They were supplied by the reader, which is still true of Arabic, Ethiopic languages, and Hebrew.
The following list shows a handful of examples among many. Winnett claims to have over 60 examples of names with LIL or Allah in inscriptions he alone has deciphered. He suggests a complete list is found in Le Nabateen by Cantineau. Also, James Hastings reports that, in inscriptions at Safa, there were two uses of the LIL forms.
Here is our chart of the inscriptions from the rocks:
If the chart is a problem due to some odd window display in your format, see the chart in graphic form on a linked page, click-- HERE
This is the signature
after a petition to the god.
|dkrt'lt kll s(t)rt
|"May Allat remember every wish."
is the feminine of Allah
and has the root LIL from Sumer.
|l'g' bn (d)yrt bn hmlt
|"By 'Aga' bin Dayrat bin Hamilet"
|Note the god LIL in the name.
bn (z)dl tswq 'l z'm
bn (t)'m t(l) yws.
He longed for Za'm bin Ta'm
is a love note by a man
who missed Za'm.
Notice the LIL (root of Allah) used in his name.
|lswql bn m.....
|"By Shawq'il bn M..."
again has the LIL god-root form.
|"Mar'allah of Kuhayl"
Mar'allah appears many times
in N. Arabia. May be a priestly title.
Please notice the ancient form which was used in the writer's name as we saw above. (FOOTNOTE 76: 172 / 241, 242, 245, 252, 253b / 221-267) To be used in the names of the people, a god had to be very well established and respected over a long period. A current example of this surname-god association is in the name Jésus (pronounced Hay'suus) in Mexico. It would be inconceivable to assume that Mexico was ever Buddhist by looking at all the Jésuses in the Mexico City phone book. Thus Allah was secure in the names of the gods of Arabia from 700 BC to 50 AD in Nabatea, but to show that Allah, or IL, and Allat, had been around for a very long time already, they were honored in many Arab personal names.
James Hastings also asserts that in times of great stress, or pleadings, the Northern Arabs used the god-form, FHLH, which meant, "so, O Allah." The goddess form used just as often was FHLT which meant, "so, O Allat." This shows that Allah was well established in North Arabia and that he had a consort, or lady friend of high esteem, named Allat. Hastings also reports that ILAHA was used for the sun god. This shows that Allah was the sun god figure and Allat was the moon goddess, which again debunks the recent notion that Allah was a seventh-century solar deity in Mecca. (FOOTNOTE 77: 60 / 248 / 484) To read our discussion of Robert Morey's rediculous claims that Allah was the moon god, see Appendix 5.
In his Semitic Mythology, Langdon indicates that Allat was the high goddess of choice, even more than Allah. In Safatic inscriptions of Hauran, she was referred to as Alilat, Alitta, Hallat, or by her Babylonian title, Allitu. In South Arabia, which we will treat later, she was ILAT. This shows the linguistic variation caused by migration along the trade routes going back to Phoenicia, Assyria, Babylon, and Sumer. The Nabataeans claimed that Allat was the goddess-consort of Dusares, which duplicated the North Arabian marriage of Tammuz and Ishtar, the Babylonian godhead.
"What does this have to do with Allah?" you ask. Simply this, Allah was the exact unquestionable linguistic male gender compliment of Allat, with suffix gender distinctions on the LIL root. The fact that Allat was the consort of Dusares (rather than Allah), in Phoenicia and North Arabia, simply shows how weak Allah had become in the pantheon. Let us just say, "Allat was visiting around," and Allah had to wait to get her back until they moved on to Mecca where the Meccan pre-Islamic religious leaders remarried Allat to Allah. Mohammed honored this in the Satanic Verses. (FOOTNOTE 78: 89 / 14-17 / 355-356; 60 / 664 / 464) It wouldn't be the first time a man moved in order to get his wife to come back to him.
SIDE NOTE: Was Allah the moon god of Mecca, as some allege? Answer: Wadd was the only moon god to the Arabs, and he never made it to Mecca. In our zeal to expose Islam, we need not invent exciting notions to hold our reader's attention when the truth is carved in stone in North Arabia and all over the Middle East! Some books are thrown together in a hurry to coincide with the latest ravings of the wild man of Baghdad. It sells books, but the truth is easily butchered. I hope the massive bibliography of this book you are reading will convince you that it couldn't have been thrown together in a few days in order to coincide with some terrifying events in the Middle East. Robert Morey's book is very light on bibliography, and he does NOT prove that Allah is the moon god-- he just says it, and Jack Chick distributed it. Jack knew my book was coming, but he would not wait. Islamic Invasion is vastly less believable than Mother Goose because it was not researched well. In fact, a smart Mullah will one day see Morey's folly and use it to prove that Allah and Jehovah are one and the same. I refuse to discuss how, but I fear it will happen soon.
Yemenites, circa 3 BC, built a temple of Wadd on the Greek Island of Delos! Wadd got around, but he was the only moon god, unless we let Sin in, who was a moon god, but never in the evolution of the pantheon from Sumer, home of Allah and Allat.
The Islamic notion of monotheism attached to Allah is not present in North Arabian inscriptions. Winnett, in an article for The Moslem World, gives a number of inscription quotes, including Allah, Allat, Dhu-Ghabat, Nahy, with Manat and LIL, coming up frequently in names of the writers. In one inscription Allah is asked to send the Jinn (devils) to aid the writer. Vengeance is called for from Allah on other men competing for the lover of the writer. Please don't think lightly of these writers. They were carving their zeal in stone with metal instruments, and that takes a serious mind and some time. It is a vastly greater undertaking than carving ones initials in tree bark.
Winnett shows that common to Allah in the inscriptions is the attribute, "abtar" or "childless." The revelation that Allah had no offspring, which Mohammed claimed in Koran, Sura 108 and 112, was used by Mohammed as a correction of the Christian doctrine regarding the Sonship of Jesus Christ. This does not imply that Mohammed knew a monotheistic god personally. It implies that Mohammed picked Allah, a god who could not keep a wife, so other gods impregnated Allat, the wife of Allah.
I say, "Sorry Mohammed, old man, but Arab monotheism had its roots in North Arabia 500 years before the birth of Christ, or 1100 years before you climbed into the caves near Mecca to get your alleged revelations." (FOOTNOTE 79: 194 / 242-49 / 719-22) Though Allah was childless, it is clear that Allah had a consort named Allat. The original reason they never produced a son is because the doctrine of pagan Babylon, from which Allah evolved, said that the goddess could produce a son without being sired by the god in residence. Much later, the North Arabian reason Allah never had a son was because Allat went to other gods to sire her.
Mohammed's monotheism is a myth. Allah and Allat, along with devils (Jinn) and a whole community of deities, were happily making their way to Mecca in North Arabia circa 500 BC. This Hajj of Allah might better be called "the migration of the gods to Mecca." It was a divine caravan!
Olmstead draws the divine couple together by reporting an inscription at Dedan which said, "Naamil (note the IL root), son of Hafraz. Allah is exalted." From Tema comes another voice blasting the inferior god, "Salm is a mean god" and, "A foul god is Salm." Olmstead then associates Allah with the gods reported by Herodotus-- Dionysus, Alilat, and Orotalt. Alilat is Allat, the consort of Allah. It is interesting to note that a Dedanite inscription makes reference to Geshmu the Arab, Nehemiah's opponent. This is the kind of historic cross reference which is glaringly missing in the Koran. (FOOTNOTE 80: 115 / 295 / 182)
Mohammed was terrified of the Allah / Allat connection. He allowed the family to exist momentarily, by way of the "Satanic verses" in Sura 53, but he saw at once that he could not counterfeit Christianity and win the Jews with an earthly physical family for the Islamic godhead. The Jews in Medina liked Mohammed's monotheism, so Allah had to be divorced from Allat for the Jews to go for the new cult. It worked too, for a while, as the Jews at first like Mohammed.
The doctrine of the eternal Sonship of The Lord Jesus Christ is not based upon physical activity since, as Jesus said in the Bible, Matthew 22:30, "For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven."
Mohammed refused to live by faith, so he could not understand how Elohim could have a Son who was eternally OF God but not physically sired BY God. In this, Mohammed and Joseph Smith of the Mormons, are alike. They both believed that all sons are produced in the physical marriage bed. This is the result of reducing the divine to our small human imaginations.
So, we have now determined that Allah made the journey in good health all the way from Sumer to Northern Arabia. It is clear that Allah's Hajj has been a great success, because the rest of the journey to Mecca, and Allah's role in the advent of Islam in 625 AD, is written history. Mohammed claimed he found Allah in the Kaaba after he threw out all of the other pagan gods. Let's take his word for it.
Haji Allah is the pagan god who survived best and who deserves the distinction. After all, he migrated over a period of 3500 years and 2000 miles from Nimrod's Babel to Mecca. It is now clear that Mohammed's claim to a heritage in Elohim is the most exquisite of blasphemies. Elohim, who never had a wife, could not possibly be the Allah of North Arabia, the god who was frequently abandoned when the goddesses looked for a new divine consort.
(FOOTNOTE 81: Credit where credit is due. From now on we will frequently refer to Allah as "Haji Allah." This is in recognition of his making the first Hajj, or pilgrimage, from Babylon to Mecca. Any Muslim today, who makes the required pilgrimage to Mecca, will add the title "Haji" to his name.)
Allah is the god of Islam. Allat was its goddess, if only for a few weeks and by courtesy of Satan, until Mohammed dropped her from godhead (Sura 53, "Satanic Verses"). I have just given you a fraction of the bibliographical material (mine alone consists of 4000 pages from nearly 300 authors) to support this historic picture, which is available upon request and for a price.
You will remember that I said that Allah came by another route to Mecca. Since he was a legend rather than a real god he traveled the trade routes in all directions. Come, let us start over and follow Haji Allah as he traveled to Mecca by the southern route. Many Iranian and Indian Muslims follow this route today as they make their Haj to Mecca in the very footprints of Allah.
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